2009 NSA Funded Research
The National Sunflower Association selected and funded the following research projects for the 2009 year. Funding was also in part possible due to the North Dakota Oilseeds Council, South Dakota Oilseeds Council, Colorado Sunflower Administrative Committee, Kansas Sunflower Commission and the North Dakota State Board of Agricultural Research and Education.
2009 NSA-Funded Research Projects
Sunflower rust: race identification , hybrid resistance evaluation and search for new sources of resistance

Investigator: Tom Gulya - USDA ARS

Description: Collect and identify rust races across the entire major U.S. sunflower production area during a three year period. Second, to evaluate commercial hybrids for resistance to the predominant rust races and to publish this information. If, during the course of this project, we identify new races able to overcome all existing rust resistance genes, another objective will be added: to identify resistance to any new race(s) and assist in transferring that resistance into agronomically acceptable lines for release.

Funded Amount:$9,630
Development of Management Strategies to Control Sunflower Rust Using Genetic Resistance and Fungicides

Investigator: Sam Markell - NDSU

  1. Complete fungicide efficacy/timing started in 08;
  2. Create rust isolates from prior collections and continue to collect samples;
  3. Develop molecular markers with Drs. Qi and Hulke to identify resistant genes and pyramid resistant genes into lines.

Funded Amount: $9,959
Evaluation of sunflower for resistance to seed insect pests in the northern plains

Investigators: Janet Knodel - NDSU, Larry Charlet - USDA ARS, and Brent Hulke - USDA ARS

Description: Evaluate selected hybrids, accessions, interspecific crosses, and lines in screening nurseries for resistance to the banded sunflower moth in North Dakota and red sunflower seed weevil in North and South Dakota.

Funded Amount: $9.20
Screening sunflower for reaction to infestation by the sunflower midge and seed maggot

Investigator: Janet Knodel - NDSU and Larry Charlet - USDA

Description: To evaluate and score commercial sunflower hybrids for their midge reaction and to rate head injury caused by the SF seed maggot

Funded Amount: $6,048
Development of Resistance to Stem and Seed Insect Pests of Sunflower in the Central Plains

Investigator: Larry Charlet - USDA ARS

Description: Evaluate selected crosses, accessions, and interspecific crosses in screening nurseries for resistance to the sunflower stem weevil, sunflower longhorned beetle, and sunflower moth in Kansas.

Funded Amount: $55,000
Mitigation of yield losses to Dectes texanus in rain fed sunflowers

Investigator: JP Michaud - KSU

Description: Evaluate two stay-green hybrids for their potential to mitigate losses to D. texanus (Dectes) in rain fed oilseed sunflower. Quantify the degree to which the 'stay green' trait will retard the desiccation of sunflower stalks and delay the onset of girdling by D. texanus larvae, and other stalk insects, in comparison with a conventional NuSun hybrid. Determine the median stalk moisture level that triggers the girdling behavior of D. texanus larvae. Plot post-maturity changes in stalk breakage forces in two stay-green hybrids versus a conventional NuSun hybrid and correlate these with moisture content and larval girdling.

Funded Amount: $10.97
Nitrogen Management for Irrigated Sunflowers

Investigator: Joel Schneekloth - USDA-ARS, Akron, CO

  1. Develop a nitrogen uptake relationship for irrigated sunflowers. Understand when and how much N the plant utilizes at major growing points.
  2. N management recommendations for fully irrigated and limited irrigation sunflower. Better understanding of soil N utilization by irrigated sunflowers and the need for additional N when following irrigated corn.
  3. Develop potential fertigation recommendations for fully irrigated and limited irrigation sunflowers.
Funded Amount: $4,000
On-Farm Sunflower Planting Date Study

Investigator: Kathleen Grady - SDSU

Description: Determine if the profit potential from oilseed sunflower planted later than the current USDA/RMA final planting dates in South Dakota differs from that of sunflower planted on or near the USDA/RMA final planting date.
Funded Amount: 
Skip-Row Sunflower for Drought Avoidance in Dryland Cropping Systems

Investigator: Thandiwe Nleya - SDSU

Description: Determine the impact of planting arrangement (skip one/plant one row, skip two/plant two rows, and conventional planting in 20-inch rows) and plant population on performance of sunflower in a semi-arid environment in western SD 2. Assess how the skip-row technology would affect weed pressure and weed management.

Funded Amount: $3,402
Water Use Efficiency & Irrigation Timing for Southern High Plains Sunflower (TX & NM)

Investigator: Calvin Trostle - Texas A & M and Sangu Angadi - NM State
Implement a scaled irrigation regime for sunflower at 5 levels of water application (including dryland as level "0") and seasonal irrigation targets of 4", 8", 12" & 16" for determination of water use curves to provide data for developing irrigation scheduling criteria. Examine two additional irrigation timings whereby a higher proportion of the 8" water level will be applied either earlier in the vegetative stages or later in the reproductive stages. Conduct farmer education programs for optimum sunflower irrigation in the Southern High Plains.

Funded Amount: $8,000
Enhance USDA ARS Sunflower Unit budget

Investigator: Brady Vick - USDA

Description: Second year of enhancing Sunflower Unit budget which allowed for the hire of the geneticist after the retirement of Dr. Jerry Miller.

Funded Amount: $50,000
Production Practices for Late-Planted Sunflower in Eastern Kansas

Investigator: James H. Long, Jr. - KSU

  1. Determine optimum plant populations not only for yield but also for reducing plant dry down time in the late fall.
  2. Determine if the use of drying agents to hasten plant dry down are viable in the late-planted production system.
Funded Amount: $4,750
Determination of Physiological Maturity in sunflower

Investigator: Burton Johnson - NDSU

Description: Determine when physiological maturity occurs in sunflower.

Funded Amount: $7,000
Comparison of Sunflower and Other Crops on Effective Nitrogen

Investigator: Ezra Aberle - NDSU

  1. Determine amount of deep N (2-4') that is utilized by a sunflower crop grown under differing fertility treaments of 1, 50, and 100 lbs actual N/acre.
  2. Determine the amount of deep N (2-4') that remains after a sunflower crop as compared to spring wheat, barley and canola.

Funded Amount: $3,800
Managing Deficit Sprinkler Irrigation for Sunflower Production

Investigator: Freddie Lamm - KSU

  1. Examine the effects of 12 different irrigation management regimes with initial sprinkler capacity limited to 25mm every 4,8, or 12 days with irrigation season starting dates of July1 or 15th and with and without preseason irrigation of input of 127 mm.
  2. Determine the effects of 3 sunflower populations of 18,000, 23,500 and 28,000 plants/ac as affected by irrigation regime on canopy formation, components of seed yield, water use and water use efficiency.
  3. Compare the economics of the 36 different sunflower production systems using a partial budgeting approach to evaluate differential costs and returns.
Funded Amount: $7,840
Planting Considerations for Sunflower in the Southern Great Plains

Investigator: Chad Godsey - Oklahoma State

  1. Determine the optimum plant population for the two possible production scenarios, early season and double crop production.
  2. Evaluate the use of various planter attachments and planter adjustments to optimize plant establishment.
Funded Amount: $14,931
Crop Coefficients for Irrigation Scheduling of Sunflower Under Limited Water Conditions

Investigator: Gerald Buchleiter - USDA ARS CSU

Description: Improve irrigation scheduling techniques. Develop crop coefficients that enable computing actual daily water use of optimal irrigation scheduling. Evaluate use of crop canopy temperatures to characterize water stress levels of the crop for timing irrigations.

Funded Amount: $7,800
Validating Saflufenacil (Kixor™) Desiccation of Sunflower Using Aerial Application

Investigator: Phil Stahlman - KSU

Description: Demonstrate sunflower desiccation with Kixor alone and in combination with glyphosate compared to solo applications of paraquat and glyphosate using aerial application equipment.
Funded Amount: 
Evaluation of Double-Cropping Sunflower after Wheat in Southern Illinois

Investigator: Stephen Ebelhar - University of IL

  1. Evaluate the interaction of planting rates and N rates on yield of sunflower after wheat in southern Illinois.
  2. Determine the impact of fungicide application to sunflower grown in southern Illinois after wheat and the interactions of fungicide application with planting rates and N rates.
  3. Compare these interaction effects on oilseed versus confection varieties.
Funded Amount: $8,953
2009 Crop Survey

Investigator: Duane Berglund

Description: Conduct annual survey of the sunflower crop to determine production issues that may need research/education attention.

Funded Amount: $8,500
2009 Projects Funded by Other Sources
Evaluation of Fungicide Efficacy & Development of Timing Strategy for Control of Sunflower Rust
Sam Markell, North Dakota State University, with collaborators at varioius NDSU sites and at the University of Nebraska; $22,828 (This project is funded by the North Dakota Harmonization Board.)
Evaluation of Fungicides & Fungicide Timing for Management of Phomopsis in Sunflower
Sam Markell - NDSU; $20,544 (Funded by the North Dakota Harmonization Board.)
Determination of the Biology, Impact, Economic Threshold & Pest Management Strategies for the Sunflower Seed Maggot in the Northern Plains
Janet Knodel - NDSU, and USDA-ARS-Fargo and NDSU research station collaborators; $74,000 (Of that total, $28,000 is from the NSA, $40,000 from the North Dakota Harmonization Board and $6,000 from chemical companies.)
Testing Anthraquinone as a Blackbird Repellant
George Linz, USDA/APHIS-Fort Collins and the ND Oilseed Council; $20,000
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