2010 NSA Funded Research
The National Sunflower Association selected and funded the following research projects for the 2010 year. Funding was also in part possible due to the North Dakota Oilseeds Council, South Dakota Oilseeds Council, Colorado Sunflower Administrative Committee, Kansas Sunflower Commission and the North Dakota State Board of Agriculture.
2010 NSA-Funded Research Projects
Development of Management Strategies to Control Sunflower Rust Using Genetic Resistance and Fungicides

Investigators: Sam Markell (NDSU) and Tom Gulya (USDA ARS NCSL)

  1. Fungicide evaluation and timing in early onset epidemics;
  2. Assessment of pathogen diversity;
  3. Identification of sunflower resistance sources (and genes) in the sunflower germplasm core collection;
  4. Educate a Ph.D. level sunflower-pathologist.
Funded Amount: $14,313
Determination of vegetative compatibility groups and their aggressiveness of Verticillium dahliae occurring on sunflower

Investigator: Sam Markell (NDSU)

Description: The first objective of this project is to determine the VCG(s) of Verticillium dahliae that infects sunflowers in the United States and abroad. The second objective is to determine the aggressiveness of a representative sample of sunflower isolates from each VCG identified.
Funded Amount: 
Monitoring the Distribution of Downy Mildew, Verticillium and Charcoal Rot on Sunflower: A Multiple States Approach

Investigator: Tom Gulya (USDA ARS NCSL), Sam Markell (NDSU), Lawrence Osborne (SDSU), and Robert Harveson (Univ. of Nebraska)

Description: Collect downy mildew samples for race identification from ND, SD, MN, KS, NE and CO at midseason. Collect 200 soil samples from same six states and assay for the presence/quantity of Macrophomina and Verticillium. Visit fields with positive charcoal rot and Verticillium lab assay to determine disease incidence prior to harvest. Determine Verticillium races in greenhouse tests, and supply isolates to NDSU post-doc for VCG analysis.

Funded Amount: $22,330
Expansion of Sclerotinia Head Rot Misting System Repeat Tests

Investigator: Blaine Schatz (NDSU Carrington Research Center)

Description: Expand the evaluation of sunflower hybrids in the 'Repeat Test' lines for improved resistance to sclerotinia head rot.

Funded Amount: $9,600
Evaluation of sunflower for resistance to seed insect pests in the northern plains

Investigators: Janet Knodel (NDSU), Larry Charlet and Brent Hulke (USDA ARS), and Kathy Grady (SDSU)

Description: Evaluate selected accessions, interspecific crosses, and lines in screening nurseries for resistance to the banded sunflower moth in North Dakota and red sunflower seed weevil in South Dakota.

Funded Amount: $12,200
Screening sunflower for reaction to infestation by the sunflower midge and seed maggot

Investigator: Janet Knodel (NDSU) and Larry Charlet (USDA)

Description: To evaluate and score commercial sunflower hybrids for their midge reaction.

Funded Amount: $6,048
Development of Resistance to Stem and Seed Insect Pests of Sunflower in the Central Plains

Investigators: Larry Charlet and Brent Hulke (USDA ARS) and Rob Aiken (KSU Colby)

Description: Evaluate selected crosses, accessions, and interspecific crosses in screening nurseries for resistance to the sunflower stem weevil, sunflower longhorned beetle, and sunflower moth in Kansas.

Funded Amount: $58,000
Mitigation of yield losses to Dectes texanus in rain fed sunflowers

Investigator: JP Michaud (KSU)

Description: Evaluate two stay-green hybrids for their potential to mitigate losses to D. texanus (Dectes) in rain fed oilseed sunflower. Quantify the degree to which the 'stay green' trait will retard the desiccation of sunflower stalks and delay the onset of girdling by D. texanus larvae, and other stalk insects, in comparison with a conventional NuSun hybrid. Determine the median stalk moisture level that triggers the girdling behavior of D. texanus larvae. Plot post-maturity changes in stalk breakage forces in two stay-green hybrids versus a conventional NuSun hybrid and correlate these with moisture content and larval girdling.

Funded Amount: $10,970
Enhance USDA ARS Sunflower Unit budget

Investigator: Brady Vick (USDA)

Description: Third year of enhancing Sunflower Unit budget which allowed for the hire of the geneticist after the retirement of Dr. Jerry Miller.

Funded Amount: $50,000
Comparison of Sunflower and Other Crops on Effective Nitrogen

Investigator: Ezra Aberle (NDSU)

  1. Determine amount of deep N (2-4') that is utilized by a sunflower crop grown under differing fertility treatments of 1, 50, and 100 lbs actual N/acre.
  2. Determine the amount of deep N (2-4') that remains after a sunflower crop as compared to spring wheat, barley and canola.
Funded Amount: $4,500​​​​​​​
Managing Deficit Sprinkler Irrigation for Sunflower Production

Investigator: Freddie Lamm (KSU)

  1. Examine the effects of 12 different irrigation management regimes with initial sprinkler capacity limited to 25mm every 4,8, or 12 days with irrigation season starting dates of July 1 or 15th and with and without preseason irrigation of input of 127 mm;
  2. Determine the effects of 3 sunflower populations of 18,000, 23,500 and 28,000 plants/ac as affected by irrigation regime on canopy formation, components of seed yield, water use and water use efficiency;
  3. Compare the economics of the 36 different sunflower production systems using a partial budgeting approach to evaluate differential costs and returns.
Funded Amount: $7,840
Planting Considerations for Sunflower in the Southern Great Plains

Investigator: Chad Godsey (Oklahoma State)

  1. Determine the ideal planting date for sunflower production in Oklahoma.
  2. Evaluate the use of various planter attachments and planter adjustments to optimize plant establishment.
Funded Amount: $11,492
Field trial expansion for sunflower genetics research

Investigator: Brent Hulke (USDA ARS)
Expand testing of existing lines to locations relevant to sunflower production, and increase our ability to handle new production threats through breeding and marker-assisted trait integration.

Funded Amount: $67,500
Nitrogen Management for Irrigated Sunflowers

Investigator: Joel Schneekloth (CSU)

  1. Further refine fertigation recommendations as a comparison to pre-plant applications.
  2. Better understanding of nitrogen uptake of sunflowers with and without pre-plant applications of nitrogen.
Funded Amount: $6,000
Determining Salt Tolerance among Sunflower Genotypes

Investigator: Steve Hagu (Texas A & M)

  1. (A) Develop rapid and reliable screening method for determining salt tolerance on an individual plant basis;
  2. Describe the salt tolerance of genotypes that maybe used in breeding programs;
  3. Train a graduate student in regards to the scientific process, plant breeding, and sunflower production.
Funded Amount: $6,350
Boosting Sunflower Production in SW Colorado with Supplemental Irrigation

Investigator: Abdel F. Berrada (CSU)

  1. Determine the response of sunflower to limited irrigation at two seeding rates and two nitrogen fertilizer rates.
  2.  Develop guidelines to optimize sunflower oil production in SW Colorado with supplemental irrigation.
Funded Amount: $9,000
Evaluation of Sunflower in Dryland Crop Rotations

Investigator: Abdel F. Berrada (CSU)

  1. Determine the effects of sunflower in rotation with other crops on: a. Crop yields and quality (seed oil or protein concentration), b. Soil moisture availability, c. Nutrient (N & P) availability, d. Pest dynamics;
  2. Assess the agronomic and economic feasibility of the various cropping systems;
  3. Disseminate the research results to a wide audience via publications and field days.
Funded Amount: $10,450
Novel Herbicide Efficacy Studies across multiple Sunflower Hybrids established as a double crop by Zero Tillage in Winter Wheat stubbles in the Southeastern United States

Investigator: Brian Caldbeck (Caldbeck Consulting)

  1. Hybrid Adaptability x 2 locations.
  2. Evaluation of KIH-485 (Kumiai, America) vs standard programs x 2 locations. This herbicide has been tested in multiple locations in the past and shows good promise. Labeling is going forward for soybeans and corn. Kumiai has a total of 10 acres of Experiminal Use permit from EPA for this product in 2010.
  3. Economic comparison with double cropped soybeans x 2 locations.
Funded Amount: $11,400
Development of a Perennial Sunflower for Use in an Integrated Blackbird Management System

Investigator: Michael Kantar (University of MN)

Description: The objective of this research is to use current genetics and plant breeding techniques to introgress genes for perennial habit from Helianthus tuberosus L. (2n=6x=102) into domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=2x=34).

Funded Amount: $15,000
Field Enclosure Evaluation of Anthraquinone as a Blackbird Repellent for Ripening Sunflower

Investigator: George M. Linz (USDA/WS)

  1. To find the lowest effective application rate of Avipel repellent that will significantly reduce RWBL damage to enclosed oilseed sunflower.
  2. To conduct an initial open-field test with Avipel in an open ‘crop destruct' research plot known to have blackbird damage.
Funded Amount: $21,580
2010 Crop Survey

Investigator: Duane Berglund

Description:Conduct annual survey of the sunflower crop to determine production issues that may need research/education attention

Funded Amount: $12,000
2010 Projects Funded by Other Sources
Evaluation of fungicides and fungicide timing for management of Phomopsis in sunflower
Investigators: Sam Markell, (NDSU), Schatz, Halley & Friskop (NDSU) and Gulya (USDA). 

Description: Establish Phomopsis disease trials in Carrington and Langdon ND. There will be four replications with up to 8 treatments of varying timing. Up to six different fungicides will be tested. Disease will be laboratory grown and inserted in the trials. Irrigation will be used to create the micro-climate if needed.

Funding of $20,544 provided by the ND Harmonization Board for the 2010 season.
Evaluation of fungicide efficacy and timing for control of sunflower rust in early onset epidemics
Investigators: Sam Markell (NDSU), Friskop, Halley, Schatz (NDSU), Harveson (U of Nebraska), Gulya (USDA) and Schaefer (CHS). 

Description: Determining control of early onset of rust (vegatative stages). Includes fungicide timing, rates and fungicide efficacy. Three locations in ND and one in Nebraska. One ND plot will be a natural field infection in Northcentral ND. Rust spores will be placed in the other replicated plots and irrigation will be used if necessary.

Funding of $32,326 provided by the ND Harmonization Board for the 2010 season.
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