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You Are Here Sunflower Magazine > Bird Disease Research Studies


Sunflower Magazine

Bird Disease Research Studies
April 2002

Bird Disease Research Studies



Cent Eur J Public Health 1995 Feb;3(1):21-4

Salmonellae in gulls and other free-living birds in the Czech Republic.

Hubalek Z, Sixl W, Mikulaskova M, Sixl-Voigt B, Thiel W, Halouzka J, Juricova Z, Rosicky B, Matlova L, Honza M, et al

Institute of Landscape Ecology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic.

Cloacal swabs, collected from 756 wild synanthropic and exoanthropic birds of 57 species in the Czech Republic, yielded 32 strains of Salmonella typhimurium [phage types (PT) 141, 104 and 41], six isolates of S. enteritidis (PT 8, 4 and 6e), and one each of S. panama and S. anatum. Except for one S. enteritidis isolate from a grey-lag goose (Anser anser) and one S. typhimurium isolate from a coot (Fulica atra), all of the other strains were derived from black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus), of which 24.7% were found to be infected. The black-headed gull might play a role in the dispersal of pathogenic salmonellae.





Document 27

Accession No.: 98213081.

Author: Kapperud-G. Stenwig-H. Lassen-J.

Title: Epidemiology of Salmonella typhimurium O:4-12 infection

in Norway: evidence of transmission from an avian wildlife

reservoir.

Source: Am-J-Epidemiol. 1998 Apr 15. 147(8). P 774-82.

Journal Title: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY.

Abstract: In 1987, a nationwide outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium

O:4-12 infection traced to contaminated chocolate bars occurred

in Norway. In the 5 years after the outbreak, elevated numbers

of sporadic cases caused by the epidemic strain of

Salmonella were detected, followed by a decline in

subsequent years. To characterize the epidemiology of this

infection, the authors analyzed information concerning all

sporadic cases reported in Norway from 1966 to 1996. Of the 153

patients infected by the outbreak strain, 43% were less than 5

years of age, and only three persons had acquired the infection

abroad. In contrast, 46% of the cases attributable to other S.

typhimurium O:4-12 variants and 90% of the total number of

Salmonella infections were related to foreign travel. A

distinct seasonality was observed: 76% of the cases appeared

between January and April. At the same time of year, the

epidemic strain was regularly encountered as the etiologic

agent of fatal salmonellosis among wild passerine birds,

suggesting an epidemiologic link between the avian and human

cases. The strain was rarely isolated from other sources. From

1990 to 1992, the authors conducted a prospective case-control

study of sporadic indigenous infections to identify risk

factors and obtain guidance for preventive efforts.

Forty-one case-patients, each matched by age, sex, and

geographic area with two population controls, were enrolled. In

conditional logistic regression analysis, the following

environmental factors were independently related to an

increased risk of infection: drinking untreated water, having

direct contact with wild birds or their droppings, and eating

snow, sand, or soil. Cases were also more likely than controls

to report having antecedent or concurrent medical disorders.

Forty-six percent of the study patients were hospitalized for

their salmonellosis.

Holdings: Health Sciences Serials

SHELVED BY TITLE: American journal of epidemiology

CALL NUMBER: 614.05 AM

LIB HAS: v.81(1965)-v.88(1968), v.90(1969)-v.101(1975),

v.103(1976)-v.145(1997)

v.146:n.1-3,5-12(1997:Jul-Aug,Sep-Dec) v.147(1998)--

K.K. Sherwood Library - Harborview

SHELVED BY TITLE: American journal of epidemiology

CALL NUMBER: Per

LIB HAS: v.127(1988)--









DTW Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 1993 Jul;100(7):264-74



[Example of the concentration of salmonellae in the environment].



[Article in German]



Kohler B



Staatliches Veterinar- und Lebensmitteluntersuchungsamt, Potsdam.



During a period of 3 years the occurrence of Salmonellas was cleared up on

depots for refuse of households around Berlin. The investigations were carried

out by susceptible fractionated enrichment in Medium of Rappaport/Vassiliadis.

15.1% of samples were positive (77 out of 511). Most Salmonellas wer detected in

soil samples contaminated with feces of birds. The isolation rate reached his

maximum during autumn and winter, when great bird herds lived on the depots.

Mainly S. typhimurium, S. saint paul and S. enteritidis were found. S.

enteritidis LT 17 (Colindale) was isolated first time in former East Germany.

Diseased children of Berlin (West) were the source for contamination of refuse

of households and wild birds (crows, gulls) with this Lysotype. During 51 months

dissemination of Salmonellas in 4 contaminated feedstuff yeast and animal meal

plants was examined. Salmonella were found in 12.02% of samples of feedstuff

yeast (2047) and 6.2% of samples of animal meal (337). Characteristically was

the seasonal distribution during winter and early spring and the persistence of

the same serotypes for years. Recontamination by the environment was the main

reason for the occurrence of Salmonella. Regular examination of filter dust

samples of all production units was a very effective way for detection of

Salmonella contamination in feed plants. S. enteritidis was demonstrated in the

environment of an animal meal factory 18 months after his shutdown.





Document 1

Accession No.: 95000152.

Author: Tobias-H. Heinemeyer-E-A.

Title: [Occurrence of Salmonella in coastal North Sea water and

their hygienic relation to indicator bacteria and sources of

contamination]

Source: Zentralbl-Hyg-Umweltmed. 1994 Jun. 195(5-6). P 495-508.

Journal Title: ZENTRALBLATT FUR HYGIENE UND UMWELTMEDIZIN.

Language: ger.

Abstract: The quantity of salmonella, fecal coliform bacteria and

fecal streptococci was measured in 2003 water samples from

North Sea coastal water, drainage canals, the lower River Ems

and sewage works. The presence of salmonella did

not correlate to an increasing presence of fecal indicator

bacteria. In several cases more than 10(3) salmonella

per litre were found in samples whose fecal coliform levels met

the strictest quality requirements (in accordance with the

levels stipulated by EEC bathing water regulations).

Additionally 226 marine sediment samples were measured for

their content of salmonella only. While

salmonella were present in 12.3% of at least 1 litre of

the North Sea water samples (bathing places excepted) and in

about 7% of sediment samples (10 g), no salmonella were

traced in 400 samples from marine water bathing places. The

general contamination with salmonella of sea water

bathing places can therefore be regarded as low. More frequent

occurrences on the beaches must be seen as the result of a

concrete case of contamination or other disturbance. The

serovarieties of the salmonella isolated from North Sea

and Ems waters indicate in comparison with isolations from

sewage works, infected humans and calves from the region

that the contamination of the local coastal water mainly stems

from sewage works and could also on a small scale be

caused by sea birds. Salmonella from agricultural

sources proved to be irrelevant in this study. Molecular

biological examinations of the plasmid profiles for example

could give more precise informations. The establishment of

serovarieties which are relatively unimportant for human

medicine (eg. S. mbandaka) in sewage works, drainage

canals and the North Sea reveal the problem involved in

evaluating such finds in bathing water samples, because in EEC

regulations no differentiation or quantification is made.

Holdings: Health Sciences Serials

SHELVED BY TITLE: Zentralblatt fur Hygiene und Umweltmedizin

CALL NUMBER: W1 ZE778NH

LIB HAS: v.188(1989)-v.197(1995)









Document 2

Accession No.: 93368477.

Author: Karaguzel-A. Koksal-I. Baki-A. Ucar-F. Gok-I. Cirav-Z.

Title: Salmonella and Shigella carriage by gulls (Larus sp.) on

the east Black Sea region of Turkey.

Source: Microbios. 1993. 74(299). P 77-80.

Journal Title: MICROBIOS.

Language: eng.

Abstract: Sea gull feces (616 samples in toto) were examined for enteric

human pathogens, and 1.3% and 0.60% were found to contain

Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp., respectively. All

positive samples were near sewage outfalls and refuse

tips. The Salmonella serotype was isolated as S. typhi

and the Shigella serotype as S. sonnei. Pathogenic bacteria

were isolated from the fecal samples collected only in the

Trabzon area.

Holdings: Health Sciences Serials

SHELVED BY TITLE: Microbios

CALL NUMBER: W1 MI295

LIB HAS: v.1(1969), v.2:n.2-7/8(1970), v.3:n.9-12(1971)

v.4(1971)-v.10(1974), v.11:n.42-46A(1974)

v.12(1975)-v.80(1994)









Document 4

Accession No.: 92145044.

Author: Murray-C-J.

Title: Salmonellae in the environment.

Source: Rev-Sci-Tech. 1991 Sep. 10(3). P 765-85.

Journal Title: REVUE SCIENTIFIQUE ET TECHNIQUE.

Language: eng.

Abstract: Salmonellae are part of the bacterial flora normally found in

Man and animals, although the frequency of occurrence is

variable, reflecting the general level of Salmonella in

food, water and the environment. They are widely disseminated

into environments which have been disturbed by human

activities. Wildlife may harbor the organisms but do not

appear to be a major conduit by which the organisms enter the

human and animal food chain. In areas associated with Man,

salmonellae in wild animals and birds reflect the

serovars disseminated into the environment. Seasonal changes in

infection occur, and the capacity of the organisms to survive

in nature varies. Water plays an important role in the spread

of the organisms to Man and animals. Control of salmonellae

must start with a significant decrease in the number of

organisms which are discharged into the environment.

Holdings: Local holdings could not be determined. Consult UW catalogs.









Document 8

Accession No.: 97345038.

Author: Kinde-H. Adelson-M. Ardans-A. Little-E-H. Willoughby-D.

Berchtold-D. Read-D-H. Breitmeyer-R. Kerr-D. Tarbell-R.

Hughes-E.

Title: Prevalence of Salmonella in municipal sewage

treatment plant effluents in southern California.

Source: Avian-Dis. 1997 Apr-Jun. 41(2). P 392-8.

Journal Title: AVIAN DISEASES.

Abstract: Effluents from 12 sewage treatment plants in southern

California were examined for Salmonella using a Moore

swab technique. Eight of the 12 plants were positive for

Salmonella when sampled at the

chlorination/dechlorination site (inside the plant). Effluents

from 11 of 12 sewage treatment plants were positive for

Salmonella when samples were analyzed downstream of the

chlorination/dechlorination site, before effluents merge with

the receiving stream (outside the plant). Two of the three

control sites, an urban runoff, a raw potable water reservoir,

and two other sites were also positive for Salmonella. A

total of 683 Salmonella isolations were represented by

11 serogroups and 54 serotypes from 26 of 32 sampling sites.

Effluents from three treatment plants and one control site (raw

potable water resevior) yielded Salmonella enteritidis

phage type 4, in addition to other serotypes.

Holdings: Health Sciences Serials

SHELVED BY TITLE: Avian diseases

CALL NUMBER: SF995 .A85

LIB HAS: v.15(1971)-v.41(1997)





Document 2

Accession No.: 98233226.

Author: Palmgren-H. Sellin-M. Bergstrom-S. Olsen-B.

Title: Enteropathogenic bacteria in migrating birds arriving in

Sweden.

Source: Scand-J-Infect-Dis. 1997. 29(6). P 565-8.

Journal Title: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES.

Abstract: Birds have been thought to play a role in transmitting

infectious agents like influenza, Borrelia and

Salmonella. To investigate the role of migrating birds

in the dispersal of enteropathogenic bacteria, stool samples

from 151 wild birds (50 gulls and 101 passerines) just entering

Sweden from their winter grounds were analysed for

Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and EHEC 0157:H7.

The thermophilic isolated enteropathogens found were further

analysed by antibiograms. Among the 50 gulls examined, we found

2 isolates of Salmonella typhimurium with multiple

antibiotic resistance. Three isolates of C. jejuni were found

in the 101 stool samples from passerines. We did not isolate

EHEC 0157:H7 in any of the bird stools examined.

Holdings: Health Sciences Serials

SHELVED BY TITLE: Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases

CALL NUMBER: W1 SC15K

LIB HAS: v.1(1969)--

K.K. Sherwood Library - Harborview

SHELVED BY TITLE: Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases

CALL NUMBER: Per

LIB HAS: v.20(1988)--









Document 14

Accession No.: 97295359.

Author: Sixl-W. Karp'iskov'a-R. Hub'alek-Z. Halouzka-J.

Mikul'askov'a-M. Salava-J.

Title: Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in black-headed

gulls (Larus ridibundus).

Source: Cent-Eur-J-Public-Health. 1997 Mar. 5(1). P 24-6.

Journal Title: CENTRAL EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH.

Abstract: Cloacal examination of 41 juvenile black-headed gulls (Larus

ridibundus) by cultivation demonstrated Campylobacter jejuni in

26 (63%) and Salmonella typhimurium in 21 (51%) of them.

All the bird samples were collected in a breeding colony

near the town Hodonin, South Moravia, Czech Republic in 1996.

Twenty six Campylobacter isolates were tested for antibiotic

and drug sensitivity: all were resistant to at least three

agents (Penicillin, Tetracyclin and Sulfomethoxazol-

trimethoprim) while all were sensitive to Augmentan, Cefotaxim,

Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Nitrofurantoin and Cephazidine.

Four percent of isolates were resistant to Ampicillin and

Nalidixic acid. Of the 21 S. typhimurium isolates tested, 33%

were sensitive to all drugs assayed, proportions of the strains

resistant to Sulfomethoxazol-trimethoprim, Tetracyclin and

Streptomycin were 58%, 16% and 8%, respectively.

Holdings: Local holdings could not be determined. Consult UW catalogs.









Document 10

Accession No.: 98016871.

Author: Davies-R-H. Wray-C.

Title: Distribution of Salmonella contamination in ten animal

feedmills.

Source: Vet-Microbiol. 1997 Sep. 57(2-3). P 159-69.

Journal Title: VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY.

Abstract: Detailed sampling of spillage and dust from milling equipment

was carried out in nine animal feedmills, three of which were

sampled twice. The salmonella isolation rate ranged from

1.1% to 41.7% of the samples and the most contaminated mills

were those where the inside of the cooling systems for pellet

or mash had been colonised by salmonella. A wide range

of salmonella serotypes were isolated which included

Salmonella typhimurium and S. enteritidis. Limited

sampling every two weeks for an 18-month period in another

animal feedmill showed marked variation in the contamination

rate of samples and range of salmonella serotypes found.

Contamination of ingredient intake pits and outloading gantries

for finished products by wild bird droppings containing

salmonella was also found in four mills.

Holdings: Health Sciences Serials

SHELVED BY TITLE: Veterinary microbiology

CALL NUMBER: W1 VE933F

LIB HAS: v.9(1984)--









Document 13

Accession No.: 97331476.

Author: Mikaelian-I. Daignault-D. Duval-M-C. Martineau-D.

Title: Salmonella infection in wild birds from Quebec.

Source: Can-Vet-J. 1997 Jun. 38(6). P 385.

Journal Title: CANADIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL.

Holdings: Health Sciences Serials

SHELVED BY TITLE: Canadian veterinary journal

CALL NUMBER: SF601 .C37

LIB HAS: v.16(1975)-v.23(1982)

v.24:n.1-6,8-12(1983:Jan-Jun,Aug-Dec) v.25(1984)-v.38(1997)

















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